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He lives a very disciplined lifestyle and is never late due to his self-planned daily training schedule. Kevin is also the engineer behind many of the Samurai Combinations, having figured out how to combine the Samurai Battlewing with the Megazord.
Kevin is the closest in terms of skill to Jayden. Nevertheless, the two of them work well as a team. After the final battle, Kevin goes back to his swimming career, planning to train for the Olympic qualifying tournament.
The Dragon Disk allows him to use his signature move "Dragon Splash". He can also use the Swordfish Disk with his Hydro Bow to fire a special healing mist.
When piloting a zord he morphs into his Megamode form. Mike is an avid video gamer and the lazy rebel of the group. He is very close friends to Kevin and Emily.
Mike also wants to be as strong as Jayden and therefore sometimes trains rigorously to improve his skills. Being the slacker of the group, he is very irresponsible and once skipped out on training when he felt that he was not doing well to hang out with his old friends.
He can also be somewhat cocky and tends to joke around, but he is kind and usually means well. While Mike is not as skilled as Jayden and Kevin, Mike is very crafty and tricky sometimes outwitting what would otherwise be a difficult enemy.
His creativity is what allows him to defeat tough opponents. Mentor Ji had trouble training him at first due to his lifestyle, but later they become more cooperative and Mike improves his Symbol Power, allowing him to access the powers of the Beetle Disk.
Throughout the series it is hinted that Mike has feelings for Emily. This is confirmed when, by the final episode, they are now in a relationship and Mike plans to travel with her back to her home to care for her sister under the guise that he will help her move her stuff.
The Bear Disk allows him to use his signature move "Forest Vortex". He can also use the Beetle Disk with his Forest Spear to extend its range and power.
Mike is portrayed by Hector David, Jr, who was one of the handful of veteran Ranger actors to appear in the Super Megaforce finale, as shown by his removal of his helmet.
Emily is a country girl and the youngest member of the team who becomes the Yellow Samurai Ranger. She is close to her older sister Serena who had been training to be the Yellow Samurai Ranger.
When Serena became ill, Emily stepped up to take her place. Emily is deeply respectful of Jayden and wants to help the team in any way she can.
As a child Emily was severely bullied, and as a result she has rather low self-esteem, often putting herself down and saying she is clumsy and not fit to be a Ranger.
Emily used an old saying " Sticks and stones may break my bones, but words will never hurt me " to help her get through her childhood. She can also be seen playing a flute, due to her sister playing a flute to make her feel better every time someone picked on her.
She idolizes Mia and strives to become more like her. As the series progresses, she becomes more confident and braver and no longer doubts herself or her abilities.
After the final battle, she goes back home to care for her sister, along with Mike, with whom she is now in a relationship.
She pilots the Ape Folding Zord. The Ape Disk allows her to use her signature move "Seismic Swing. When piloting a zord she morphs into her Megamode form.
Using the Shogun Buckle she can access Shogun Mode. Emily is portrayed by Brittany Anne Pirtle , who later returned for the Super Megaforce finale as part of the veteran ranger army.
As a child, she is portrayed by Lara Hodgson. Mia Watanabe is a strong-willed girl who acts as the big sister to the team.
She loves children and worked at an orphanage prior to becoming the Pink Samurai Ranger. Though she is a terrible cook none of the Rangers can stomach her cooking except for Lauren , Mia tries her best in order to achieve her dreams and she thinks her cooking is brilliant.
She also acts as an idol to Emily, who wants to be more like her. She is the second ranger to access super samurai mode and shogun mode after Jayden.
That does not mean that they are in love according to the story plot. It is later revealed that she has a younger brother named Terrence who she calls Terry for short, and also that she is a singer.
She was somewhat sympathetic towards Dayu after she witnessed the tragic events that befell Dayu but then later develops a strong hatred of her after Dayu attacked Emily while Mia was trying to reason with her.
She would later join the Rangers in Super Megaforce who united to face the final attack of the Warstar Armada.
She pilots the Turtle Folding Zord. The Turtle Disk allows her to use her signature move "Airway. Using the Shogun Buckle, she can access Shogun Mode.
Mia is portrayed by Erika Fong. Antonio Garcia is a fisherman and the tech wizard of the group. He happened to be a childhood friend of Jayden, training alongside him and receiving the Octozord from him and making a promise to aid him as a Samurai.
He is the only Ranger who is not of Samurai descent. With his technological skills he created his own Morpher out of a trashed cellphone and by reverse engineering the Octozord.
He also developed a way to channel symbol power through texting on his Morpher which allowed him to communicate with the Octozord. He is a very skilled cook, primarily with sea food, and will regularly prepare meals for the team.
He is also shown to be a very skilled singer and guitar player. When Antonio first appears he saves the other Rangers from the Nighlok Vulpes.
In the subsequent episode he explains his past and his intent to join the team. However, when the Rangers are completely overpowered by the Nighlok Steeleto, they reconsider and allow Antonio to join.
After the final battle, Antonio goes on a global cruise ship fishing expedition. He would later appear in Super Megaforce alongside his teammates as part of an army who came to the aid of the Megaforce Rangers.
As the Gold Ranger, he is the Samurai of Light and his personal weapon is the Barracuda Blade a wakizashi that he uses in his high speed slash attacks, reminiscent of Iaido.
He pilots the Octo Zord and the Claw Zord. He also controls the Light Zord as his secondary weapon which can be also be enlarged to fight alongside the Megazord.
Antonio will return in Super Ninja Steel. Antonio is portrayed by Steven Skyler. As a child, Antonio is portrayed by Connor Kerrigan.
As the head of the Shiba House, Lauren is the actual Ranger who can master the special Sealing Symbol, passed down from previous generations and thus has a much stronger fire power.
Because of this, she stayed in hiding while Jayden took her place to draw the Nighloks attention away from her. When she finally masters the Sealing Symbol that can defeat Master Xandred, she returns to the team.
However, she did not appear with the team when they joined the veteran Ranger army in Super Megaforce. She is kind and friendly to others, and a bit more open unlike Jayden.
She cares deeply for her younger brother and was saddened by his departure from the team like the other Rangers. For unknown reasons, she did not appear as part of the Ranger army in Super Megaforce.
Lauren Shiba is portrayed by Kimberley Crossman. The Rangers each initially have a Standard disc and a Power Disc based on their animal zords.
There are other discs tied to zords that have been lost before but have been regained. When used with the Spin Sword, the discs are spun and the mirrored hilts reveal each discs animation as the power is summoned.
When the Super Samurai Rangers combining the Black Box with their respective Power Discs, they can shoot a supercharged version of their elemental attack.
The Black Box then attaches to the Spin Sword magnifying its power. He raised Jayden from a young age and trained him to take arms as the Red Samurai Ranger.
Like the rangers, he can use symbol power to perform various tasks. Farkus "Bulk" Bulkmeier, a supporting character from the early years of the franchise, is once again portrayed by Paul Schrier.
In his latest misadventure, Bulk becomes inspired by the newest Ranger team to appear and becomes determined to shape Spike, the son of his best friend Skull , into a great Samurai.
Unfortunately for Spike, Bulk often deludes himself about his own abilities. He has a very snorty laugh and also a habit of laughing at inappropriate moments, such as Bulk getting hurt.
He also has a crush on Mia the Pink Samurai Ranger and his most prized possession is a stuffed toy panda named Sammy.
He gave Jayden the Lion Folding Zord. Portrayed by Steven A. Their goal is to flood the Sanzu River with the sorrows of humans and into the crevice from the Netherworld to the Earth.
Master Xandred is the leader of the Nighloks and is armed with a broadsword. The most powerful of the Nighlok, Xandred is prone to frequent violent outbursts, usually directed at the failure of his subordinates to destroy the Rangers.
He seeks to cause the Sanzu River to flood with the despair of humans, allowing him to enter the world of the living and conquer it.
Xandred possesses enormous strength and power, easily able to overpower the Samurai Rangers in their first encounter, and is proven to be a capable swordsman.
Power energy radiates from his body that can sometimes incapacitate him but has also been shown to create new Moogers and Spitfangs. However he displays a number of fatal weakness as well.
He plans to go to Earth through a gap. Though Octoroo advises him not to, Xandred makes his return to Earth planning to destroy Serrator along with the Samurai Rangers.
Instantly Xandred starts to dry up, but he fights the Rangers anyway and completely overpowers them. Jayden goes to take him on with his Bullzooka, but Xandred manages to block all the shots.
He is able to defeat Jayden even in Super Samurai Mode, leaving him badly hurt and unable to stand up. Afterwards, Xandred repairs and gives Dayu back her harmonium.
Xandred is about to completely dry up when Octoroo brings him into the Netherworld to rejuvenate, sinking to the bottom of the Sanzu River.
In "The Sealing Symbol," Xandred states that with his power renewed, he is unstoppable. When Dayu is starting to succumb to her injuries, Xandred puts her out of his misery and assumes a stronger form.
Xandred moves fast enough to knock the Rangers down as the Samurai Rangers work to keep Xandred from attacking Lauren.
Xandred attacks the Samurai Rangers as Jayden uses a teleportation symbol to get the Samurai Rangers away from Xandred. Xandred then takes a kimono that Dayu had dropped and retreats back to the Netherworld.
After Octoroo holds a brief memorial for Dayu, Xandred states that she has served her purpose and that it is time to invade Earth.
He begins the invasion on Earth by unleashing the waters of the Sanzu River upon the Earth. Xandred tells Octoroo that they have yet to defeat the Samurai Rangers.
Xandred confronts the Rangers during their fight with an army of Moogers. Xandred then uses his Netherwind attack and the Flames of the Netherworld to take down the Rangers.
Xandred is surprised the Rangers will not beg for mercy, even in defeat so he plans to go after Lauren expecting them to beg for her. In the final episode "Samurai Forever," the Rangers chase him down and attack him with everything they have.
Jayden then uses the Second Shiba Fire Disk as their trump card. The Rangers put all the symbol power they have left into one final strike which slashes Xandred in half.
In his final moments before his destruction, Xandred brags to the Rangers that they may have beaten him, but the Nighloks will rise again one day.
Before becoming a Nighlok, she was a human who was a newlywed to Deker. But a fire implying to have been set up purposely by Serrator burned their house down and injured Deker leaving him with moments left to live.
When she accepted the deal, Deker indeed lived on but as half-human, half-Nighlok with no memory of Dayu.
Dayu then became a Nighlok herself with only her shamisen which was once her decorative lute by her side to remind her of her past.
Of all the villains, Dayu is the only one who cannot let go of her past once making an attempt to reclaim it by kidnapping brides and using their tears to create a wedding dress.
She is a powerful fighter as she took down both Kevin and Mia at once. Her shamisen which she calls her " Harmonium " has a hidden short sword in the neck which she uses for battle.
Mia pursues Dayu only for them to be put under a sleeping spell by Rhinosnorus. After the sleeping spell wore off, Dayu attacked Mia who wanted to help Dayu after what she saw only to retreat when Emily arrived.
Dayu is wondering if Serrator is lying until she finds Deker in the forest. Dayu learns from Deker that his sword Uramasa had taken the blow in the fight against Jayden.
Soon after Serrator heads to a cliff, Dayu senses her Harmonium presence and heads after Serrator. After she manages to catch up with Serrator, she fights him only to be knocked down by Serrator.
In "A Stroke of Fate," Dayu tries to convince Deker not to trust Serrator and Antonio begs him to reconsider his role in the battle between Humans and Nighloks following him remembering his past memories.
Although these "samurai" were civilian public servants, the modern word is believed [ by whom? Military men, however, would not be referred to as "samurai" for many more centuries.
At this time the 7th to 9th centuries , the Imperial Court officials considered them to be merely a military section under the control of the Imperial Court.
Ultimately, Emperor Kanmu disbanded his army. While the emperor was still the ruler, powerful clans around Kyoto assumed positions as ministers, and their relatives bought positions as magistrates.
To amass wealth and repay their debts, magistrates often imposed heavy taxes, resulting in many farmers becoming landless. Some clans were originally formed by farmers who had taken up arms to protect themselves from the Imperial magistrates sent to govern their lands and collect taxes.
These clans formed alliances to protect themselves against more powerful clans, and by the mid-Heian period, they had adopted characteristic Japanese armor and weapons.
Originally, the Emperor and non-warrior nobility employed these warrior nobles. In time they amassed enough manpower, resources and political backing, in the form of alliances with one another, to establish the first samurai-dominated government.
As the power of these regional clans grew, their chief was typically a distant relative of the Emperor and a lesser member of either the Fujiwara , Minamoto , or Taira clans.
Though originally sent to provincial areas for fixed four-year terms as magistrates, the toryo declined to return to the capital when their terms ended, and their sons inherited their positions and continued to lead the clans in putting down rebellions throughout Japan during the middle- and later-Heian period.
Because of their rising military and economic power, the warriors ultimately became a new force in the politics of the Imperial court.
The victor, Taira no Kiyomori , became an imperial advisor and was the first warrior to attain such a position. He eventually seized control of the central government, establishing the first samurai-dominated government and relegating the Emperor to figurehead status.
However, the Taira clan was still very conservative when compared to its eventual successor, the Minamoto, and instead of expanding or strengthening its military might, the clan had its women marry Emperors and exercise control through the Emperor.
The Taira and the Minamoto clashed again in , beginning the Genpei War , which ended in The victorious Minamoto no Yoritomo established the superiority of the samurai over the aristocracy.
Instead of ruling from Kyoto, he set up the shogunate in Kamakura , near his base of power. Initially, their responsibility was restricted to arresting rebels and collecting needed army provisions and they were forbidden from interfering with Kokushi officials, but their responsibility gradually expanded.
Thus, the samurai-class appeared as the political ruling power in Japan. Various samurai clans struggled for power during the Kamakura and Ashikaga shogunates.
Zen Buddhism spread among the samurai in the 13th century and helped to shape their standards of conduct, particularly overcoming the fear of death and killing, but among the general populace Pure Land Buddhism was favored.
Japan mustered a mere 10, samurai to meet this threat. The invading army was harassed by major thunderstorms throughout the invasion , which aided the defenders by inflicting heavy casualties.
The Yuan army was eventually recalled and the invasion was called off. The Mongol invaders used small bombs , which was likely the first appearance of bombs and gunpowder in Japan.
The Japanese defenders recognized the possibility of a renewed invasion and began construction of a great stone barrier around Hakata Bay in Completed in , this wall stretched for 20 kilometers around the border of the bay.
It would later serve as a strong defensive point against the Mongols. The Mongols attempted to settle matters in a diplomatic way from to , but every envoy sent to Japan was executed.
This continued defiance of the Mongol Emperor set the stage for one of the most famous engagements in Japanese history.
In , a Yuan army of , men with 5, ships was mustered for another invasion of Japan. The casualties and damage inflicted by the typhoon, followed by the Japanese defense of the Hakata Bay barrier, resulted in the Mongols again being defeated.
The thunderstorms of and the typhoon of helped the samurai defenders of Japan repel the Mongol invaders despite being vastly outnumbered.
These winds became known as kami-no-Kaze , which literally translates as "wind of the gods". This is often given a simplified translation as "divine wind".
The kami-no-Kaze lent credence to the Japanese belief that their lands were indeed divine and under supernatural protection. During this period, the tradition of Japanese swordsmithing developed using laminated or piled steel , a technique dating back over 2, years in the Mediterranean and Europe of combining layers of soft and hard steel to produce a blade with a very hard but brittle edge, capable of being highly sharpened, supported by a softer, tougher, more flexible spine.
The Japanese swordsmiths refined this technique by using multiple layers of steel of varying composition, together with differential heat treatment , or tempering, of the finished blade, achieved by protecting part of it with a layer of clay while quenching as explained in the article on Japanese swordsmithing.
The craft was perfected in the 14th century by the great swordsmith Masamune. The Japanese sword katana became renowned around the world for its sharpness and resistance to breaking.
Many swords made using these techniques were exported across the East China Sea , a few making their way as far as India. Issues of inheritance caused family strife as primogeniture became common, in contrast to the division of succession designated by law before the 14th century.
Invasions of neighboring samurai territories became common to avoid infighting, and bickering among samurai was a constant problem for the Kamakura and Ashikaga shogunates.
The Sengoku jidai "warring states period" was marked by the loosening of samurai culture, with people born into other social strata sometimes making a name for themselves as warriors and thus becoming de facto samurai.
Japanese war tactics and technologies improved rapidly in the 15th and 16th centuries. Use of large numbers of infantry called ashigaru "light-foot", due to their light armor , formed of humble warriors or ordinary people with naga yari a long lance or naginata , was introduced and combined with cavalry in maneuvers.
The number of people mobilized in warfare ranged from thousands to hundreds of thousands. The arquebus , a matchlock gun, was introduced by the Portuguese via a Chinese pirate ship in and the Japanese succeeded in assimilating it within a decade.
Groups of mercenaries with mass-produced arquebuses began playing a critical role. By the end of the Sengoku period, several hundred thousand firearms existed in Japan and massive armies numbering over , clashed in battles.
Oda Nobunaga was the well-known lord of the Nagoya area once called Owari Province and an exceptional example of a samurai of the Sengoku period.
Oda Nobunaga made innovations in the fields of organization and war tactics, made heavy use of arquebuses, developed commerce and industry, and treasured innovation.
Consecutive victories enabled him to realize the termination of the Ashikaga Bakufu and the disarmament of the military powers of the Buddhist monks, which had inflamed futile struggles among the populace for centuries.
Attacking from the "sanctuary" of Buddhist temples, they were constant headaches to any warlord and even the Emperor who tried to control their actions.
He died in when one of his generals, Akechi Mitsuhide , turned upon him with his army. Importantly, Toyotomi Hideyoshi see below and Tokugawa Ieyasu , who founded the Tokugawa shogunate, were loyal followers of Nobunaga.
Hideyoshi defeated Mitsuhide within a month, and was regarded as the rightful successor of Nobunaga by avenging the treachery of Mitsuhide. In the end, only Ieyasu tastes it.
Toyotomi Hideyoshi , who became a grand minister in , himself the son of a poor peasant family, created a law that the samurai caste became codified as permanent and hereditary, and that non-samurai were forbidden to carry weapons, thereby ending the social mobility of Japan up until that point, which lasted until the dissolution of the Edo shogunate by the Meiji revolutionaries.
It can be said that an "all against all" situation continued for a century. The authorized samurai families after the 17th century were those that chose to follow Nobunaga, Hideyoshi and Ieyasu.
Taking advantage of arquebus mastery and extensive wartime experience from the Sengoku period, Japanese samurai armies made major gains in most of Korea.
Shimazu Yoshihiro led some 7, samurai and, despite being heavily outnumbered, defeated a host of allied Ming and Korean forces at the Battle of Sacheon in , near the conclusion of the campaigns.
In spite of the superiority of Japanese land forces, ultimately the two expeditions failed, though they did devastate the Korean peninsula.
The causes of the failure included Korean naval superiority which, led by Admiral Yi Sun-sin , harassed Japanese supply lines continuously throughout the wars, resulting in supply shortages on land , the commitment of sizeable Ming forces to Korea, Korean guerrilla actions, wavering Japanese commitment to the campaigns as the wars dragged on, and the underestimation of resistance by Japanese commanders.
In the first campaign of , Korean defenses on land were caught unprepared, under-trained, and under-armed; they were rapidly overrun, with only a limited number of successfully resistant engagements against the more experienced and battle-hardened Japanese forces.
During the second campaign, in , however, Korean and Ming forces proved far more resilient and, with the support of continued Korean naval superiority, managed to limit Japanese gains to parts of southeastern Korea.
Social mobility was high, as the ancient regime collapsed and emerging samurai needed to maintain a large military and administrative organizations in their areas of influence.
Most of the samurai families that survived to the 19th century originated in this era, declaring themselves to be the blood of one of the four ancient noble clans: Minamoto , Taira , Fujiwara and Tachibana.
In most cases, however, it is hard to prove these claims. During the Tokugawa shogunate , samurai increasingly became courtiers, bureaucrats, and administrators rather than warriors.
With no warfare since the early 17th century, samurai gradually lost their military function during the Tokugawa era also called the Edo period.
They were strongly emphasized by the teachings of Confucius — BC and Mencius — BC , which were required reading for the educated samurai class.
The leading figures who introduced confucianism in Japan in the early Tokugawa period were Fujiwara Seika — , Hayashi Razan — and Matsunaga Sekigo — The conduct of samurai served as role model behavior for the other social classes.
With time on their hands, samurai spent more time in pursuit of other interests such as becoming scholars. Navy steamships in Perry used his superior firepower to force Japan to open its borders to trade.
Prior to that only a few harbor towns, under strict control from the shogunate, were allowed to participate in Western trade, and even then, it was based largely on the idea of playing the Franciscans and Dominicans off against one another in exchange for the crucial arquebus technology, which in turn was a major contributor to the downfall of the classical samurai.
From , the samurai army and the navy were modernized. A naval training school was established in Nagasaki in Naval students were sent to study in Western naval schools for several years, starting a tradition of foreign-educated future leaders, such as Admiral Enomoto.
French naval engineers were hired to build naval arsenals, such as Yokosuka and Nagasaki. The samurai finally came to an end after hundreds of years of enjoyment of their status, their powers, and their ability to shape the government of Japan.
However, the rule of the state by the military class was not yet over. In defining how a modern Japan should be, members of the Meiji government decided to follow the footsteps of the United Kingdom and Germany , basing the country on the concept of noblesse oblige.
The Imperial Japanese Armies were conscripted, but many samurai volunteered as soldiers, and many advanced to be trained as officers. Much of the Imperial Army officer class was of samurai origin, and were highly motivated, disciplined, and exceptionally trained.
The last samurai conflict was arguably in , during the Satsuma Rebellion in the Battle of Shiroyama. This conflict had its genesis in the previous uprising to defeat the Tokugawa shogunate, leading to the Meiji Restoration.
The newly formed government instituted radical changes, aimed at reducing the power of the feudal domains, including Satsuma, and the dissolution of samurai status.
Samurai were many of the early exchange students, not directly because they were samurai, but because many samurai were literate and well-educated scholars.
Some of these exchange students started private schools for higher educations, while many samurai took pens instead of guns and became reporters and writers, setting up newspaper companies, and others entered governmental service.
Some samurai became businessmen. Only the name Shizoku existed after that. The philosophies of Buddhism and Zen , and to a lesser extent Confucianism and Shinto , influenced the samurai culture.
The Buddhist concept of reincarnation and rebirth led samurai to abandon torture and needless killing, while some samurai even gave up violence altogether and became Buddhist monks after coming to believe that their killings were fruitless.
Some were killed as they came to terms with these conclusions in the battlefield. The most defining role that Confucianism played in samurai philosophy was to stress the importance of the lord-retainer relationship—the loyalty that a samurai was required to show his lord.
The philosophies of Buddhism and Zen , and to a lesser extent Confucianism and Shinto , are attributed to the development of the samurai culture.
Suzuki, no doubt the single most important figure in the spread of Zen in the West. In the first place, the nation with which we have had to do here surpasses in goodness any of the nations lately discovered.
I really think that among barbarous nations there can be none that has more natural goodness than the Japanese. They are of a kindly disposition, not at all given to cheating, wonderfully desirous of honour and rank.
Honour with them is placed above everything else. There are a great many poor among them, but poverty is not a disgrace to any one.
There is one thing among them of which I hardly know whether it is practised anywhere among Christians.
The nobles, however poor they may be, receive the same honour from the rest as if they were rich. First, a man whose profession is the use of arms should think and then act upon not only his own fame, but also that of his descendants.
He should not scandalize his name forever by holding his one and only life too dear Imagawa was admired for his balance of military and administrative skills during his lifetime, and his writings became widespread.
It is forbidden to forget the great debt of kindness one owes to his master and ancestors and thereby make light of the virtues of loyalty and filial piety It is forbidden that one should There is a primary need to distinguish loyalty from disloyalty and to establish rewards and punishments.
Similarly, the feudal lord Takeda Nobushige — stated: One should not ask for gifts or enfiefments from the master No matter how unreasonably the master may treat a man, he should not feel disgruntled An underling does not pass judgments on a superior.
Such a neglect means a disloyalty toward humanity. The feudal lord Asakura Yoshikage — wrote: A man should be assigned according to his ability and loyalty.
By his civility, "all were willing to sacrifice their lives for him and become his allies. He also ordered his followers to put forth great effort in studying the military classics, especially those related to loyalty and filial piety.
He is best known for his quote: He stated that it was shameful for any man to have not risked his life at least once in the line of duty, regardless of his rank.
He is best known for his saying "The way of the Samurai is in desperateness. Ten men or more cannot kill such a man. Torii Mototada — was a feudal lord in the service of Tokugawa Ieyasu.
On the eve of the battle of Sekigahara , he volunteered to remain behind in the doomed Fushimi Castle while his lord advanced to the east. Torii and Tokugawa both agreed that the castle was indefensible.
In an act of loyalty to his lord, Torii chose to remain behind, pledging that he and his men would fight to the finish.
As was custom, Torii vowed that he would not be taken alive. In a moving last statement to his son Tadamasa, he wrote: It is said that both men cried when they parted ways, because they knew they would never see each other again.
Ieyasu Tokugawa would successfully raise an army and win at Sekigahara. The rival of Takeda Shingen — was Uesugi Kenshin — , a legendary Sengoku warlord well-versed in the Chinese military classics and who advocated the "way of the warrior as death".
Go to the battlefield firmly confident of victory, and you will come home with no wounds whatever. Engage in combat fully determined to die and you will be alive; wish to survive in the battle and you will surely meet death.
When you leave the house determined not to see it again you will come home safely; when you have any thought of returning you will not return.
You may not be in the wrong to think that the world is always subject to change, but the warrior must not entertain this way of thinking, for his fate is always determined.
Families such as the Imagawa were influential in the development of warrior ethics and were widely quoted by other lords during their lifetime.
Paul Varley notes the description of Japan given by Jesuit leader St. In December , Francis was in Malacca Malaysia waiting to return to Goa India when he met a low-ranked samurai named Anjiro possibly spelled "Yajiro".
Anjiro was not an intellectual, but he impressed Xavier because he took careful notes of everything he said in church. Xavier made the decision to go to Japan in part because this low-ranking samurai convinced him in Portuguese that the Japanese people were highly educated and eager to learn.
They were hard workers and respectful of authority. In their laws and customs they were led by reason, and, should the Christian faith convince them of its truth, they would accept it en masse.
By the 12th century, upper-class samurai were highly literate due to the general introduction of Confucianism from China during the 7th to 9th centuries and in response to their perceived need to deal with the imperial court, who had a monopoly on culture and literacy for most of the Heian period.
As a result, they aspired to the more cultured abilities of the nobility. Examples such as Taira Tadanori a samurai who appears in the Heike Monogatari demonstrate that warriors idealized the arts and aspired to become skilled in them.
Tadanori was famous for his skill with the pen and the sword or the "bun and the bu", the harmony of fighting and learning. By the time of the Edo period, Japan had a higher literacy comparable to that in central Europe.
The number of men who actually achieved the ideal and lived their lives by it was high. Tadanori was a great general, pre-eminent in the arts of both sword and poetry.
Rather, these ideals were vigorously pursued in the upper echelons of warrior society and recommended as the proper form of the Japanese man of arms.
With the Heike Monogatari, the image of the Japanese warrior in literature came to its full maturity. Plenty of warrior writings document this ideal from the 13th century onward.
Most warriors aspired to or followed this ideal otherwise there would have been no cohesion in the samurai armies.
As aristocrats for centuries, samurai developed their own cultures that influenced Japanese culture as a whole. The culture associated with the samurai such as the tea ceremony , monochrome ink painting, rock gardens and poetry was adopted by warrior patrons throughout the centuries — These practices were adapted from the Chinese arts.
Zen monks introduced them to Japan and they were allowed to flourish due to the interest of powerful warrior elites.
Another Ashikaga patron of the arts was Yoshimasa. His cultural advisor, the Zen monk Zeami, introduced the tea ceremony to him.
Previously, tea had been used primarily for Buddhist monks to stay awake during meditation. In general, samurai, aristocrats, and priests had a very high literacy rate in kanji.
Recent studies have shown that literacy in kanji among other groups in society was somewhat higher than previously understood.
For example, court documents, birth and death records and marriage records from the Kamakura period, submitted by farmers, were prepared in Kanji.
Both the kanji literacy rate and skills in math improved toward the end of Kamakura period. Some samurai had buke bunko , or "warrior library", a personal library that held texts on strategy, the science of warfare, and other documents that would have proved useful during the warring era of feudal Japan.
One such library held 20, volumes. The upper class had Kuge bunko , or "family libraries", that held classics, Buddhist sacred texts, and family histories, as well as genealogical records.
Literacy was generally high among the warriors and the common classes as well. The feudal lord Asakura Norikage — AD noted the great loyalty given to his father, due to his polite letters, not just to fellow samurai, but also to the farmers and townspeople:.
It goes without saying that he acted this way toward those in the samurai class, but he was also polite in writing letters to the farmers and townspeople, and even in addressing these letters he was gracious beyond normal practice.
In this way, all were willing to sacrifice their lives for him and become his allies. In a letter dated 29 January , St Francis Xavier observed the ease of which the Japanese understood prayers due to the high level of literacy in Japan at that time:.